Probing the critical nucleus size for ice formation with graphene oxid

Water freezing is ubiquitous and affects areas as diverse as climate, the chemical industry, cryobiology and materials science. Ice nucleation is the controlling step in water freezing1–5 and has, for nearly a century, been assumed to require the formation of a critical ice nucleus6–10. But there has been no direct experimental evidence for the existence of such a nucleus, owing to its transient…

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